聖化的迷思:政治、身體美學、國族統制

2019 年八月24日 — 九月4日 

地點:  NexUs Culture Nepal,尼泊爾加德滿都

策展人:  朱峯誼 | Ashmina RANJIT

 

Poster design: Siddhanta Pudasaini | Photo credit: Sean Wang  &  Mekh Limbu

策展論述

[英文] 當代社會裡宗教常被視為「現代性發展」的對立面。社會學家馬克斯·韋伯用「除魅」(disenchantment)的概念指出現代性裡的去神秘化、去宗教化特徵。多位學者如涂爾幹、席納爾,亦將「世俗化」(secularization)視為現代國族政治體制發展裡的重要錨點。這些古典論點忽略了宗教與社會傳統在現代社會裡仍保有相當強大的影響力;不論是在全球各社會仍然相當盛行的父權體制,或是反對及阻撓性別平權的各宗教基本教義或社會保守團體,皆是相當明顯的實際案例。

   宗教與社會傳統教條至今仍保有如此強大影響力的原因之一,在於其並不僅以教義或組織來型塑社會團體之規範,而是更在心理層級上、以「除魅」及「世俗化」之反向操作方式,建構出一套作用於個體情感上的「聖化治理技術」(technique of sanctification)。「聖化」(sanctification)一詞的定義是「使神聖化、使潔淨」。而在實際的論述運作上,聖化及淨化必然是奠基於二元對立架構上;當某一人事物被視為神聖、被視為潔淨,則必然有相對的概念被視為罪惡、被視為汙穢。

   這些二元架構誘使主體臣服於其所展現的價值判斷與美學政治,誘使主體尊敬、崇尚、服從被視為神聖、崇高的,並且同時合法化對那些被視為低下、不潔的人事物之宰制、歧視、控制、排除、與剝削。這樣的系統不僅在巨觀層級上強化了社會既有的宰制關係、定義社會規範及道德秩序,更在微觀的個人層級上成為民眾日常生活中時時遵從的倫理、美學標準以及處事與判斷原則。聖化治理可以說是始於前現代社會時期的、古老的、傅柯所說的生命政治技術。

   本展覽中來自三個不同地區的四位藝術家,透過各自的觀察與生活經歷,不約而同地以當代聖化治理技術與政治及社會結構的關係為主題進行創作。台灣藝術家 姚睿蘭 的作品「Cleanness is Next to Godliness」(2019),對比其在台灣與尼泊爾分別所觀察到的、不同的潔淨及汙穢的文化建構概念。該作品與尼泊爾藝術家 Siddhanta Pudasaini 的聲音裝置「Voice of Divinity」(2019)併置,藉由其與長輩親人們相互討論尼泊爾社會裡月經禁忌的訪談,進一步探討該父權體系如何將女性月經汙名化、穢化,並藉由歧視性的對待對女性進行社會宰制。 來自巴基斯坦的藝術家 Tehreem Hassan,以其多圖層的平面創作作品「Body vs. Choices」(2019),則探討被社會建構的身體美學標準,如何美化特定型態身體、醜化其他型態的身體,並進而影響個人的自我認同型塑。台灣攝影師 汪正翔 的作品「台灣聖山」(2019),則以台灣的國族認同為主題,討論在台灣的中國國族主義如何藉以聖化中國地景(喜瑪拉雅山),建構出中國認同的崇高感,並以此為建構及推廣中國人認同的技術。

   藉由此四位藝術家的作品,本展覽呈現聖化與汙化這個古老的生命政治技術在現代社會裡的運作機制,並促使觀眾進一步省思自身所處的社會結構與價值評判體系。

(本展覽屬 2019 水谷藝術 Waley Art 邊陲人台灣與尼泊爾鄉憂系列計畫,為台灣文化部支持與指導。)

參展藝術家

 

Jui-lan YAO姚睿蘭 / 628duck@gmail.com

Born in Tainan, Taiwan, Yao is a Taipei-based artist. Her background roots in Chinese painting, new media art and relational art. With these diverse elements, she is focus on the relationship between individuals and social authorities. She has been exchanged one year in Beaux-Art de Bourges (France, 2013), residency artist in STUPIN.org (Taipei, 2017), and NexUs Culture Nepal (Kathmandu, 2019). She is also the member of Openlab.Taipei.

"Cleanness is Next to Godliness" / Single channel video, 10'56", 2019

Since I was a kid, I have been repeatedly taught, “Don’t touch things that many people touch. These things are unclean. Wash your hand after you touch them.”  In Taiwan when we worship, we put palms together or use incense. Touching god’s statue is extremely forbidden. For this reason, I was amazed when seeing the different way of worship in Nepal (people constantly touching statues to express their devotion). Yet at the same time, there is also “untouchable” taboo on women’s menstruation. My work addresses and raises questions concerning these two subjects. 

"#MyPeriodMyPride Movement" / Document print for a hand-made pad workshop, 120 x 50 cm, 2019

Workshop participants: Almost Invisible | Ashmina Ranjit | Yao, Jui-Lan | Tehreem Hassan | Ankita Shrestha | Aaradhana Rayamajhi | Achel Tamang | Asmita Shahi  | Bidhi Mandal | Chu, Feng-Yi | Jeshika Shahi | Khushi Giri | Palpasa Suwa l Reezma Dangol | Rojina Chaulagain | Simran Shrestha | Sukrita Karkee | Shristi Pulami | Sabina Paudel | Sarita Dangol | Sachin Shrestha | Wang Sean

On the issue of menstruation taboo, I collaborated with Almost Invisible in organizing a two-days handmade-pad workshop. By holding lectures, workshop, participatory art, we tended to promote #MyPeriodMyPride Movement. The work uses art design as a method to “de-stigmatize” the menstruation taboo, to give new image for Nepali feminist movements carried out by young women, and to construct new feminist identity. 

Light crimson for young.

Apple green for vitality.

 

Siddhanta PUDASAINI / scorpiosiddhanta@gmail.com

Born and raised in a hindu family, I always witnessed the rituals my parents followed where a list of things are considered to be pure and auspicious - having a strong belief and faith attached to them. Every month, for few days, my mother avoided touching all the male members of my family and also abstain from daily religious rituals. This made me curious about this practice and question it's notion.

"Voice of Divinity" / Sound installation, 3 min, 2019

My work examines the hindu patriarchal narrative on purity and impurity of a mensurating body. It aims to examine and problematize the social value system and turn audience into a witness to reflect, and further deliberate.

 

Tehreem HASSAN tehreemhassan94@gmail.com

Tehreem HASSAN is a communication designer and artist from Pakistan. Her work usually takes inspiration from the impact of injustices directed towards women because of patriarchy. As a believer of symbolism and semiotics her work focuses on deconstruction of symbols used in everyday life. Moreover, she aspires to bridge the differences between different mediums of expression and to let medium itself become a message loud enough to bring and impact.

"Body vs. Choices" / Illustration prints,  42 x 29.7 cm, 2019

As a believer of symbolism and semiotics, my work primarily revolves around deconstruction of day to day experiences to scratch out the veiled realities. Since as long as the time exists, we have been accustomed to stay estranged towards our own bodies and as a result, our very own flesh and bones refuse to become our home. I have tried to explore the presence and absence of our bodies in the larger sociopolitical context as well in the most personal of experiences. The question of having an agency on our own body is suppressed to the extent that our bodies are pit against the idea of choice itself. My work attempts to unfold the place of resistance in order to reclaim our own body and bodily experiences in the larger patriarchal society. It further undertakes the mundane and oft-ignored elements from our daily lives to visualize the never ending struggle that has been forced upon us our fate..

 

Sean WANG / 汪正翔 / bossashouter@gmail.com

Sean Wang, a Taipei native, holds both a BA and MA in History from the National Taiwan University. He later received his MFA education in photography from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Sean spends his time traveling between Bitan and Taipei and actively engages with photography and criticism..

"The Holy Mountain of Taiwan—Chapter 1: R.O.C" / One framed picture (40 x100 cm) and one installation

As a believer of symbolism and semiotics, my work primarily revolves around deconstruction of day to day experiences to scratch out the veiled realities. Since as long as the time exists, we have been accustomed to stay estranged towards our own bodies and as a result, our very own flesh and bones refuse to become our home. I have tried to explore the presence and absence of our bodies in the larger sociopolitical context as well in the most personal of experiences. The question of having an agency on our own body is suppressed to the extent that our bodies are pit against the idea of choice itself. My work attempts to unfold the place of resistance in order to reclaim our own body and bodily experiences in the larger patriarchal society. It further undertakes the mundane and oft-ignored elements from our daily lives to visualize the never ending struggle that has been forced upon us our fate..